Introduction
Cumberland County vs. Maine
Cumberland County:
2022 TPI = $23,984,992K
2022 Percent of State = 28.57%
Maine:
2022 TPI = $83,950,595K
2022 Percent of U.S. = 0.38%
The annual total personal incomes (TPI) estimates compiled by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, (BEA) are among the most comprehensive, consistent, comparable and timely measures of economic activity available statewide and at the national levels. Personal income estimates are also the best available local level indicator of general purchasing power, and are therefore central to tracking and comparing county patterns of economic growth and change.
The following graphs highlight trends in the pattern of growth and change in the total personal income of Cumberland County and Maine with comparison to the nation. The data used are those compiled by the Regional Income and Product Divisions of the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. The 2017 constant dollar (real) estimates of total personal income reported in the tables and portrayed graphically below are determined using the Implicit Price Deflator for Personal Consumption.
Data Definition:
Personal income is the income received by persons from participation in production, plus transfer receipts from government and business, plus government interest (which is treated like a transfer receipt). It is defined as the sum of wages and salaries, supplements to wages and salaries, proprietors' income with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments, rental income of persons with capital consumption adjustment, personal dividend income, personal interest income, and personal current transfer receipts, less contributions for government social insurance. Because the personal income of an area represents the income that is received by, or on behalf of, all the persons who live in that area, and because the estimates of some components of personal income (wages and salaries, supplements to wages and salaries, and contributions for government social insurance) are made on a place-of-work basis, state personal income includes an adjustment for residence. The residence adjustment represents the net flow of compensation (less contributions for government social insurance) of interstate commuters.
Page 2 of 11
Cumberland County Total Personal Income, 1970-2022
Current vs. Constant Dollars (Millions)
Cumberland County Total Personal Income, 1970-2022
Current vs. Constant Dollars (Millions)
Figure 1.
Figure 1 depicts Cumberland County's annual total personal income over 1970-2022 in current and constant (2017) dollars. Constant dollar measurements remove the effects of inflation. They allow for comparison of changes in the real purchasing power of Cumberland County over time.
When measured in current dollars, Cumberland County's total personal income increased 2,906.53%, from $798M in 1970 to $23,985M in 2022. When measured in constant 2017 dollars to adjust for inflation, it advanced 412.11%, from $4,036M in 1970 to $20,669M in 2022.
Page 3 of 11
Real Total Personal Income, 1969-2022 (Millions)
Real Total Personal Income, 1969-2022 (Millions)
Figure 2.
Figure 2 traces Cumberland County's and Maine's annual real total personal income for the period 1969-2022 to illustrate real total personal income patterns over time. During this 54-year period, Cumberland County's real total personal income rose from $3,877M in 1969 to $20,669M in 2022, for a net gain of $16,792M, or 433.09%. In comparison, Maine's real total personal income advanced from $17,137M in 1969 to $72,344M in 2022, for a net advance of $55,208M, or 322.16%.
Page 4 of 11
Real Total Personal Income Indices (1969=100): 1969-2022
Real Total Personal Income Indices (1969=100): 1969-2022
Figure 3.
Figure 3 portrays Cumberland County's real total personal income growth in a broader context by offering direct comparisons across time with Maine, the United States. The growth indices shown here express each region's real total personal income in 1969 as a base figure of 100, and the real total personal incomes in later years as a percentage of the 1969 base figure. This method allows for more direct comparison of differences in real total personal income growth between regions that may differ vastly in size.
Cumberland County's overall real total personal income growth was 433.09% over 1969-2022 outpaced Maine's increase of 322.16%, and topped the United States' increase of 348.76%.
Page 5 of 11
Cumberland County Real Total Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change, 1970-2022
Cumberland County Real Total Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change, 1970-2022
Figure 4.
Figure 4 displays the short-run pattern of Cumberland County's real total personal income growth by tracking the year-to-year percent change over 1970-2022. The average annual percent change for the entire 53-year period is also traced on this chart to provide a benchmark for gauging periods of relative high--and relative low--growth against the backdrop of the long-term average.
On average, Cumberland County's real total personal income grew at an annual rate of 3.24% over 1970-2022. The county recorded its highest growth in 1986 (8.01%) and recorded its lowest growth in 1991 (-2.08%). In 2022, Cumberland County's real total personal income declined by -1.67%
Page 6 of 11
Cumberland County Real Total Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1970-2022
Cumberland County Real Total Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1970-2022
Figure 5.
Over the past five decades some counties have experienced extreme swings in growth, and often such swings have tended to coincide with the decades themselves. Figure 5 again traces the annual percent change in Cumberland County's real total personal income since 1970, but this time they are overlayed with average growth rates for the decade of the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, 2010s, and 2020-2022.
During the 1970s, Cumberland County's annual real total personal income growth rate averaged 3.32%. It averaged 5.06% throughout the 1980s, 2.89% in the 1990s, 1.98% throughout the 2000s, 2.78% in the 2010s, 3.77% thus far this decade (2020-2022).
Page 7 of 11

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
Cumberland County:
Total Personal Income, 1969-2022
 
1969
 
732,141
0.189
3,877,249
100.0
N
22.63
1970
 
797,762
0.198
4,036,032
104.1
4.10
22.43
1971
 
861,974
0.206
4,183,324
107.9
3.65
22.55
1972
 
955,512
0.213
4,484,288
115.7
7.19
22.82
1973
 
1,042,308
0.225
4,641,764
119.7
3.51
22.15
1974
 
1,140,508
0.248
4,600,121
118.6
-0.90
21.81
1975
 
1,256,075
0.269
4,676,378
120.6
1.66
22.22
1976
 
1,402,737
0.283
4,950,895
127.7
5.87
21.76
1977
 
1,529,377
0.302
5,068,190
130.7
2.37
21.82
1978
 
1,703,563
0.323
5,278,111
136.1
4.14
22.01
1979
 
1,885,270
0.351
5,364,568
138.4
1.64
21.95
1980
 
2,113,387
0.389
5,428,964
140.0
1.20
21.89
1981
 
2,352,554
0.424
5,546,514
143.1
2.17
22.11
1982
 
2,589,255
0.448
5,783,331
149.2
4.27
22.39
1983
 
2,805,613
0.467
6,010,826
155.0
3.93
22.50
1984
 
3,139,241
0.484
6,480,813
167.1
7.82
22.81
1985
 
3,452,518
0.501
6,887,404
177.6
6.27
23.21
1986
 
3,810,243
0.512
7,439,120
191.9
8.01
23.65
1987
 
4,145,969
0.528
7,851,917
202.5
5.55
23.81
1988
 
4,632,137
0.549
8,442,790
217.8
7.53
24.05
1989
 
5,021,586
0.573
8,769,644
226.2
3.87
23.93
1990
 
5,306,543
0.598
8,877,529
229.0
1.23
24.27
1991
 
5,369,823
0.618
8,692,691
224.2
-2.08
24.12
1992
 
5,605,060
0.634
8,838,001
227.9
1.67
24.06
1993
 
5,841,527
0.650
8,986,965
231.8
1.69
24.28
1994
 
6,147,132
0.664
9,263,868
238.9
3.08
24.55
1995
 
6,494,927
0.678
9,586,042
247.2
3.48
24.86
1996
 
6,909,843
0.692
9,984,889
257.5
4.16
25.06
1997
 
7,406,826
0.704
10,520,014
271.3
5.36
25.38
1998
 
7,989,377
0.710
11,257,876
290.4
7.01
25.55
1999
 
8,371,612
0.720
11,627,077
299.9
3.28
25.62
2000
 
8,933,947
0.738
12,102,012
312.1
4.08
25.46
2001
 
9,448,654
0.753
12,547,680
323.6
3.68
25.50
2002
 
9,678,097
0.763
12,685,765
327.2
1.10
25.28
2003
 
10,265,950
0.779
13,179,385
339.9
3.89
25.56
2004
 
10,892,850
0.798
13,645,571
351.9
3.54
25.83
2005
 
11,074,861
0.821
13,485,043
347.8
-1.18
25.69
2006
 
11,834,457
0.844
14,015,226
361.5
3.93
26.17
2007
 
12,256,287
0.866
14,151,612
365.0
0.97
26.09
2008
 
12,810,042
0.892
14,365,865
370.5
1.51
26.05
2009
 
12,556,214
0.889
14,120,640
364.2
-1.71
25.45
2010
 
12,987,720
0.905
14,348,852
370.1
1.62
25.72
2011
 
13,704,266
0.928
14,766,892
380.9
2.91
26.08
2012
 
14,064,237
0.945
14,877,438
383.7
0.75
26.42
2013
 
14,047,412
0.958
14,666,178
378.3
-1.42
26.38
2014
 
14,671,239
0.971
15,106,145
389.6
3.00
26.68
2015
 
15,492,347
0.973
15,922,411
410.7
5.40
27.01
2016
 
16,246,320
0.983
16,529,974
426.3
3.82
27.40
2017
 
17,173,925
1.000
17,173,925
442.9
3.90
27.82
2018
 
18,072,295
1.020
17,709,776
456.8
3.12
28.04
2019
 
19,189,052
1.035
18,537,818
478.1
4.68
28.28
2020
 
20,819,715
1.046
19,897,467
513.2
7.33
28.12
2021
 
22,911,063
1.090
21,019,131
542.1
5.64
28.35
2022
 
23,984,992
1.160
20,669,055
533.1
-1.67
28.57
Source: Calculations by the Maine Regional Economic Analysis Project (ME-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2023
REAP_PI_CA1400_300_PSN
 
   
Page 8 of 11

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
Maine:
Total Personal Income, 1969-2022
 
1969
 
3,235,956
0.189
17,136,874
100.0
N
0.41
1970
 
3,557,067
0.198
17,995,887
105.0
5.01
0.42
1971
 
3,822,683
0.206
18,552,211
108.3
3.09
0.41
1972
 
4,187,722
0.213
19,653,285
114.7
5.94
0.41
1973
 
4,706,690
0.225
20,960,543
122.3
6.65
0.42
1974
 
5,229,257
0.248
21,091,667
123.1
0.63
0.42
1975
 
5,652,308
0.269
21,043,589
122.8
-0.23
0.41
1976
 
6,446,973
0.283
22,754,290
132.8
8.13
0.43
1977
 
7,007,608
0.302
23,222,455
135.5
2.06
0.42
1978
 
7,740,514
0.323
23,982,259
139.9
3.27
0.42
1979
 
8,589,125
0.351
24,440,500
142.6
1.91
0.41
1980
 
9,655,334
0.389
24,803,057
144.7
1.48
0.42
1981
 
10,638,496
0.424
25,081,919
146.4
1.12
0.41
1982
 
11,562,933
0.448
25,826,837
150.7
2.97
0.42
1983
 
12,470,517
0.467
26,717,193
155.9
3.45
0.42
1984
 
13,760,851
0.484
28,408,619
165.8
6.33
0.42
1985
 
14,877,337
0.501
29,678,697
173.2
4.47
0.42
1986
 
16,108,071
0.512
31,449,405
183.5
5.97
0.43
1987
 
17,414,634
0.528
32,981,012
192.5
4.87
0.44
1988
 
19,256,847
0.549
35,098,600
204.8
6.42
0.45
1989
 
20,984,163
0.573
36,646,519
213.8
4.41
0.46
1990
 
21,860,806
0.598
36,571,821
213.4
-0.20
0.45
1991
 
22,261,821
0.618
36,037,525
210.3
-1.46
0.44
1992
 
23,295,062
0.634
36,731,413
214.3
1.93
0.43
1993
 
24,056,352
0.650
37,009,772
216.0
0.76
0.43
1994
 
25,036,601
0.664
37,730,727
220.2
1.95
0.42
1995
 
26,123,764
0.678
38,556,785
225.0
2.19
0.42
1996
 
27,577,620
0.692
39,850,324
232.5
3.35
0.41
1997
 
29,185,420
0.704
41,452,441
241.9
4.02
0.41
1998
 
31,264,394
0.710
44,054,834
257.1
6.28
0.41
1999
 
32,675,391
0.720
45,381,857
264.8
3.01
0.41
2000
 
35,091,410
0.738
47,535,166
277.4
4.74
0.41
2001
 
37,054,994
0.753
49,208,512
287.1
3.52
0.41
2002
 
38,290,695
0.763
50,190,317
292.9
2.00
0.42
2003
 
40,162,852
0.779
51,560,906
300.9
2.73
0.42
2004
 
42,164,527
0.798
52,819,882
308.2
2.44
0.42
2005
 
43,103,488
0.821
52,483,943
306.3
-0.64
0.41
2006
 
45,226,022
0.844
53,559,950
312.5
2.05
0.40
2007
 
46,979,294
0.866
54,244,223
316.5
1.28
0.39
2008
 
49,175,838
0.892
55,148,411
321.8
1.67
0.40
2009
 
49,337,036
0.889
55,484,122
323.8
0.61
0.41
2010
 
50,486,968
0.905
55,778,076
325.5
0.53
0.40
2011
 
52,539,787
0.928
56,613,710
330.4
1.50
0.40
2012
 
53,227,299
0.945
56,304,926
328.6
-0.55
0.38
2013
 
53,240,177
0.958
55,585,322
324.4
-1.28
0.38
2014
 
54,984,552
0.971
56,614,483
330.4
1.85
0.37
2015
 
57,356,461
0.973
58,948,664
344.0
4.12
0.37
2016
 
59,286,784
0.983
60,321,908
352.0
2.33
0.37
2017
 
61,740,123
1.000
61,740,123
360.3
2.35
0.37
2018
 
64,463,181
1.020
63,170,089
368.6
2.32
0.37
2019
 
67,842,214
1.035
65,539,801
382.4
3.75
0.37
2020
 
74,042,383
1.046
70,762,539
412.9
7.97
0.38
2021
 
80,825,703
1.090
74,151,341
432.7
4.79
0.38
2022
 
83,950,595
1.160
72,344,385
422.2
-2.44
0.38
Source: Calculations by the Maine Regional Economic Analysis Project (ME-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2023
REAP_PI_CA1400_300_PSN
 
   
Page 9 of 11

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
United States:
Total Personal Income, 1969-2022
 
1969
 
791,229,000
0.189
4,190,165,758
100.0
N
1970
 
855,525,000
0.198
4,328,265,709
103.3
3.30
1971
 
924,613,000
0.206
4,487,323,465
107.1
3.67
1972
 
1,016,408,000
0.213
4,770,076,966
113.8
6.30
1973
 
1,133,468,000
0.225
5,047,731,018
120.5
5.82
1974
 
1,244,912,000
0.248
5,021,223,733
119.8
-0.53
1975
 
1,362,505,000
0.269
5,072,617,275
121.1
1.02
1976
 
1,495,704,000
0.283
5,279,017,400
126.0
4.07
1977
 
1,651,632,000
0.302
5,473,329,799
130.6
3.68
1978
 
1,855,849,000
0.323
5,749,934,936
137.2
5.05
1979
 
2,073,296,000
0.351
5,899,598,782
140.8
2.60
1980
 
2,313,972,000
0.389
5,944,235,512
141.9
0.76
1981
 
2,590,995,000
0.424
6,108,676,176
145.8
2.77
1982
 
2,777,640,000
0.448
6,204,105,336
148.1
1.56
1983
 
2,969,333,000
0.467
6,361,584,112
151.8
2.54
1984
 
3,275,415,000
0.484
6,761,937,695
161.4
6.29
1985
 
3,508,482,000
0.501
6,999,046,441
167.0
3.51
1986
 
3,717,756,000
0.512
7,258,548,586
173.2
3.71
1987
 
3,931,800,000
0.528
7,446,308,852
177.7
2.59
1988
 
4,264,433,000
0.549
7,772,592,728
185.5
4.38
1989
 
4,605,107,000
0.573
8,042,309,775
191.9
3.47
1990
 
4,897,332,000
0.598
8,192,943,538
195.5
1.87
1991
 
5,072,291,000
0.618
8,211,045,100
196.0
0.22
1992
 
5,406,546,000
0.634
8,524,985,809
203.5
3.82
1993
 
5,643,648,000
0.650
8,682,535,385
207.2
1.85
1994
 
5,933,938,000
0.664
8,942,579,420
213.4
3.00
1995
 
6,278,125,000
0.678
9,266,058,093
221.1
3.62
1996
 
6,660,854,000
0.692
9,625,094,288
229.7
3.87
1997
 
7,068,422,000
0.704
10,039,373,926
239.6
4.30
1998
 
7,584,003,000
0.710
10,686,661,406
255.0
6.45
1999
 
7,978,449,000
0.720
11,081,025,264
264.5
3.69
2000
 
8,620,234,000
0.738
11,677,052,911
278.7
5.38
2001
 
8,990,104,000
0.753
11,938,732,039
284.9
2.24
2002
 
9,146,700,000
0.763
11,989,225,466
286.1
0.42
2003
 
9,474,684,000
0.779
12,163,560,736
290.3
1.45
2004
 
10,008,929,000
0.798
12,538,275,270
299.2
3.08
2005
 
10,540,800,000
0.821
12,834,755,927
306.3
2.36
2006
 
11,291,446,000
0.844
13,372,153,008
319.1
4.19
2007
 
11,925,044,000
0.866
13,769,145,681
328.6
2.97
2008
 
12,423,410,000
0.892
13,932,275,429
332.5
1.18
2009
 
12,058,253,000
0.889
13,560,635,845
323.6
-2.67
2010
 
12,547,501,000
0.905
13,862,497,514
330.8
2.23
2011
 
13,299,818,000
0.928
14,331,082,712
342.0
3.38
2012
 
13,905,749,000
0.945
14,709,785,897
351.1
2.64
2013
 
14,063,283,000
0.958
14,682,748,144
350.4
-0.18
2014
 
14,778,160,000
0.971
15,216,235,418
363.1
3.63
2015
 
15,467,113,000
0.973
15,896,476,839
379.4
4.47
2016
 
15,884,741,000
0.983
16,162,082,333
385.7
1.67
2017
 
16,658,962,000
1.000
16,658,962,000
397.6
3.07
2018
 
17,514,402,000
1.020
17,163,073,878
409.6
3.03
2019
 
18,343,601,000
1.035
17,721,060,157
422.9
3.25
2020
 
19,609,985,000
1.046
18,741,324,605
447.3
5.76
2021
 
21,392,812,000
1.090
19,626,252,970
468.4
4.72
2022
 
21,820,248,000
1.160
18,803,588,325
448.8
-4.19
Source: Calculations by the Maine Regional Economic Analysis Project (ME-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2023
REAP_PI_CA1400_300_PN
 
   
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